Vitellius 69 The Roman Empire “officially” begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title “Augustus” — which then becomes the name by which we know him. We might think that the Empire, Imperium, begins with Augustus becoming Emperor, Imperator, but that is not the case. Imperator simply means “commander,” and this had long been in use with a specific meaning. An imperator was someone with a military command and imperium, which meant both military and civil authority in the area of his command. This made Julius Caesar essentially the dictator of Gaul , once he had conquered it. That was dangerous, indeed fatal, for the Republic; but in those terms Julius Caesar began the creation of the Roman Empire already as an “emperor. It accompanies the institutional changes that were effected or completed by Augustus.
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Anno Domini The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,  and the practice of not using a year zero.
The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as ” Vulgar Era” to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
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Anno Domini The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,  and the practice of not using a year zero. The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as “Vulgar Era” [e] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae [f] discovered so far was in a book by Johannes Kepler. Thus, “the common era of the Jews”,   “the common era of the Mahometans”,  “common era of the world”,  “the common era of the foundation of Rome”. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Others have taken a different approach. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures — different civilizations, if you like — that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity.
Plenty of Fish
Richard Cowen’s Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water – images – curent page , , to , , years ago Eurypterids, otherwise known as sea scorpions. Wikipedia Late Ordovician survivals and extinctions: There were no land animals and extinctions were confined to water life. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart.
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts’ book Social Science History and to other resources.
Anuradhapura, the greatest monastic city of the ancient world that date from the middle of the 5th century B. Today Anuradhapura, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is replete with renovated monuments, restored edifices, preserved ruins and historical sites where the archeological excavations are still being continued. Today, Sri Lanka Holidays foreign tourists and local tourists, who tour Anuradhapura, are simply unable to witness everything Anuradhapura has to offer, within the confines of a single day as Sri Lanka Tours have been cram-programmed.
However the major attractions of Anuradhapura can be visited in a single day. Anuradhapura was the cradle of glorious Sinhalese Buddhist civilization. The pride of place in Anuradhapura was taken by the ancient stupas and ancient reservoirs. Towering stupas dagobas of stupendous domes, the marvels of ancient civil engineering, were built having taken into the account the effects of lightening on high rise constructions, among numerous other engineering factors.
The vast rainwater reservoirs built by crossing rivers with enormous dams and controlling the outlets with “Bisokotuwa” Sinhala: Queens enclosure-no entry, of course valve pits sluice gate , extend lifeline to Anuradhapura district to date. Among the other tourist attractions at Anuradhapura are magnificent rock carvings of monumental richness and remarkable grace; colossal stone pillars that stand proud amidst the ruins of royal palaces, Buddhist monasteries and temples; magnificent stone cut swimming pools of sophisticated hydrology.
The splendors of ancient Anuradhapura was narrated in great length by Fa-Hien, the famous Chinese Buddhist scholar pilgrim, who spent two years in Anuradhapura copying the Vinaya Pitakaya Sinhala: Book of Discipline of Theravada Buddhism at the end of the 4th century. Sir William Colebrooke narrates of Anuradhapura “I saw here here ornamented capitals and balustrades, and bas reliefs of animals and foliage. I cannot better express my opinion of their elegance than by saying that, had I seen them in a museum, I should, without hesitation, have pronounced them to be Grecian or of Grecian descent.
Activists form ‘human drawbridge’ under bridge to stop tanker
Early Maps of the New World The persistent academic argument concerning early voyages to the New World ends with an examination of the cartographic evidence. Maps that have been preserved in the collections of such distinguished archives as the Louvre in Paris , the British Museum, and the Library of Congress are sufficient to prove that ancient seafarers as far back as the Roman Empire engaged in regular voyages to Ancient America.
These cartographical fingerprints contain unmistakable coastlines, geographical positions on the globe, references of longitude and latitude, proximities to identifiable mainland or islands, place names of cities or territorial titles also called toponyms , and often text that identifies key features of topography, climate, vegetation, or native species of animals. Historical perspectives provided by the sequence of maps from a particular region are often sufficient to delineate sequential modifications of coastlines as subsequent explorers gradually improved the cartographical knowledge of a particular area.
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The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry.
From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life. Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.
Gelb suggested in that the name Babil is in reference to an earlier city name,  and Joan Oates claims in her book Babylon that the rendering Gateway of the gods is no longer accepted by modern scholars. David Rohl holds that the original Babylon is to be identified with Eridu. In the Bible , the name appears as Babel Hebrew:
Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, the greatest monastic city of the ancient world, BC AD, a World Heritage Site: Buddhist monasteries, ancient irrigation reservoirs.
Published Tuesday, July 3, 8: Greenpeace Canada spokesperson Jesse Firempong told CTV News a dozen people are involved with the blockade, which was launched hours before sunrise. The company did not answer follow-up questions about whether there are tanker departures scheduled for the afternoon or on Wednesday. Multiple marine traffic tracking websites list the Serene Sea as being moored east of the bridge. CTV News spoke with one of the activists involved in the blockade, Will George, as he sat in a climbing harness high above the inlet.
He said they are comfortable, equipped with food and water, and in no rush to leave. After the controversial deal was announced back in May, protesters vowed to ramp up their opposition to the project. A number of large flags are flying from the blockade, which Firempong said were decorated by First Nations from across the Coast Salish region.
Vancouver police told CTV News they started receiving reports of the incident at 7: A number of officers were sent to monitor the blockade from land as well. Jason Doucette said in an email.
History of Buddhism
The new interpretation highlighted here seeks to answer some of the many nagging questions about the various water installations and how they related to each other, both in time and function. Before we dig in, be forewarned: Much of what follows will resonate only with hard-core afficionados of Jerusalem antiquities! Note that North is to the right.
The raccoon was discovered in a steel cat trap attached to an extension cord with current running through it, according to the BC SPCA. Continue reading →.
It is composed of those whose intellectual and spiritual perceptions have revealed to them that civilization has secret destiny. The outcome of this ‘secret destiny’ is a World Order ruled by a King with supernatural powers. This King was descended of a divine race; that is, he belonged to the Order of the Illumined [Illuminati] for those who come to a state of wisdom then belong to a family of heroes-perfected human beings.
The lost key to their grade is the mastery of emotion, which places the energy of the universe at their disposal. When the Mason learns that the key He must follow in the footsteps of his forefather, Tubal-Cain.
Elaine Young And Erin James-abra Date Published Last Edited March 20, British Columbia is Canada’s most westerly province, and is a mountainous area whose population is mainly clustered in its southwestern corner. British Columbia is a land of diversity and contrast within small areas. Coastal landscapes, characterized by high, snow-covered mountains rising above narrow fjords and inlets, contrast with the broad forested upland of the central interior and the plains of the northeast.
The intense “Britishness” of earlier times is referred to in the province’s name, which originated with Queen Victoria and was officially proclaimed in The so-called “Lower Mainland,” dominated by metropolitan Vancouver , contains over 60 per cent of the province’s population and is its commercial, cultural and industrial centre. The vast interior is dominated by parallel mountain ranges and its population spreads north—south along valleys, notably the Okanagan and the Kootenay.
The Descendants of Archibald McKINNON of DeSable. Acknowledgements. Tapadh Leibh to all who have made their research and knowledge available to be drawn upon, especially Duncan Paul McKinnon, John Collins, Elaine Robinson and Sherri Smith.. Corrections, additions and comments welcomed and appreciated to Paul Mac at: [email protected] Tabhartas.
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